Basically, pollution started after industrialization. Till goods were manufactured only by hands, the earth was not abused. However, with industrialization started the need to produce more in the shortest period of time. This led to misuse of the land resources as well. There was also a sudden need to increase agriculture production, which in turn caused further pollution. To industrialization, there was addition of urbanization, which led to pollution of land in the industrial area, that later went onto being called cities.
In other words, there are many ways due to which land can be polluted, which are causing destruction of the surface of the earth. Different measures have been taken by different agencies to arrest the effects of pollution, yet there is much more, that needs to be done.
Different Types of Land Pollution
Agricultural Land Pollution
To increase the yield of products, more and more fertilizers are used, along with large quantities of pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. They are all rich in chemicals, which are able to kill the pests and increase production, but at the cost of stripping the soil of its minerals and other useful compounds. Along with pests, they cause harm to birds, mammals, fish and beneficial microbes as well. Some of the herbicides used to get rid of weeds are so harmful, that they can prove to be fatal even when they are used in small quantities.
Chemical Land Pollution
Waste material produced from different industries contributes to land pollution. More often than not the waste is not treated to get rid of toxicity, which cause damage to the soil. Responsible methods have to be used before the chemicals are disposed off.
There is a lot of garbage that is generated in each of our houses, as well as at places of work. Garbage can be in form of metal, glass, plastic, cloth, wood or even paper. This garbage makes its way to the dumping grounds, which in turn give rise to landfills. Some of the garbage is biodegradable, while there is some that is not biodegradable. Plastic is one of the most commonly used non biodegradable product. A number of products manufactured using plastic make piles and piles of waste and it becomes very difficult to get rid of them. Hence, it is important that one turns to reusable products, which will help in reducing garbage.
Food that has gone bad or is not consumed also makes for a large chunk of land pollution. If the restaurant waste has to be analyzed, one will see that the food wasted would have been able to feed a number of hungry people around the world. Similarly there is a lot of food refuse generated from homes. It is important that people take it upon themselves to reduce the quantity of refuse generated. It will not only help in reducing land pollution, but it will be of help in feeding the poor and hungry.
Littering is a problem in all parts of the world. The effect of littering is that many animals choke on these littering pieces thrown all around. If there is food in the packets and it has gone bad the animals may be poisoned with the food, which can lead to their death. Piles of litter is gathered from different parts, but the next question remains is what should one do with it, as it will take years to get rid of some and there is some, which will continue to occupy space around. Some of the items are so high in chemicals, that even if they degrade over a period of time, they will alter the soil composition.
These were some of the ways in which land is polluted. Prevention of land pollution is the need of the hour. If stringent measures are not taken now, the end of the world is not very far. All of these have caused a number of problems like birth defects, mental dysfunction, impairment of the reproductive organs, genetic disorders, etc. We cannot wait for the others to take measures, but each one of us has to understand our own responsibility and work towards improving 'OUR' earth. Small measures taken by each one of us will go a long way in helping the bigger cause.