Ecology is the study of life and the interactions between organisms and the natural environment. Ecological issues have always been a major concern. Our environment forms an integral part of our life and a clean and healthy environment is necessary for a healthy living. It is we, human beings, who should take the efforts to deal with environmental issues and take all measures to avoid the pollution or destruction of our environment. Here is a list of the different ecology issues that we are facing today.
Acid Rain: The deposition of acidic elements in forms of precipitation in snow, rain, or fog can be called acid rain. The pollutants in the atmosphere react with moisture to form acidic substances that precipitate in the form of rain.
Air Pollution: The introduction of chemical substances, which can prove harmful to the environment, into the atmosphere is known as air pollution. Air pollution can prove lethal for many organisms and cause respiratory disorders in human beings.
Carbon Trading: It is an approach to control pollution by offering incentives for achieving a decrease in the emission of pollutants. This approach of pollution control involves a central authority that sets limits on the amounts of pollutants that can be emitted.
Climate Change: A major change in the average weather of a region is known as a climate change. The natural processes as well as certain human activities can cause a change in the temperature, precipitation, and wind patterns of the Earth's atmosphere.
Ecological Footprint: It is a tool that is used to measure the amount of resources that a populace consumes and the amount of resources required to replenish the resources consumed. Ecological footprint is the method of comparing human demand with the capacity of the planet to regenerate the consumed resources.
Energy Crisis: The shortage of natural resources is referred to as energy crisis. It includes petroleum crisis, energy shortage and electricity crisis.
Environmental Ethics: The principles of environmental ethics are based on the belief that there exists an ethical relationship between human beings and their natural environment. It aims at giving the plants and animals a status equal to that of human beings, as even they are a part of our environment.
Environmental Pollution: Apart from air, water and noise pollution, there are other types of environmental pollutions such as land pollution, radioactive and thermal pollution. The term, 'environmental pollution' encompasses all the activities, which involve the introduction of contaminants into the environment.
E-Waste: The waste materials that consist of unwanted computer parts and electronic items, form the electronic waste, commonly abbreviated as e-waste. Most of the electronic waste products are toxic and non-biodegradable.
Forestry: Forestry deals with the cultivation and management of forests and the associated natural resources. Trees form an important constituent of nature. Deforestation causes soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, climate change and an imbalance in nature.
Fossil Fuels: Also known as mineral fuels, they are hydrocarbons found in the top layer of the Earth's crust. They are believed as being formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals. They are one of the non-renewable sources of energy.
Fuel Economy: With the rising prices of fuels and the increasing pollution caused by automobiles, it has become important for us to maintain our vehicles to achieve fuel efficiency.
Genetic Erosion: Genetic erosion refers to the phenomenon where the limited gene pool of an already endangered species decreases further on account of an increasing number of deaths in the existing population of the species.
Global Warming: The increase in the average temperature near the Earth's surface and oceans is referred to as global warming. The increase in the levels of carbon dioxide leads to an increase in the temperature of the Earth's atmosphere, as carbon dioxide traps the atmospheric heat.
Greenhouse Effect: A disturbance in the thermal equilibrium temperature of the Earth is known as a greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the atmosphere and the surface of the planet. The presence of gases, which absorb infrared radiation, in the Earth's atmosphere, causes the greenhouse effect. Read about the causes of greenhouse effect.
Hurricanes: Strong and powerful winds blowing at tremendous speeds are referred to as hurricanes. They gain momentum when they blow over vast water bodies. Spirally moving strong winds that arise from an area of low atmospheric pressure are known as cyclones. Those moving in an anti-clockwise direction are known as hurricanes. The Atlantic hurricane that occurred in 2005 was one of the five most devastating hurricanes we have seen. It was known as Hurricane Katrina.
Hydroelectricity: The process of generation of electricity through the use of the gravitational force of water falling from a height is known as the hydroelectric generation of electricity. Hydropower is a renewable and natural source of energy. Tidal energy is a form of hydropower that is generated by converting the energy of tides into electricity.
Landslides: Landslides involve a huge amount of ground movement such as rock falls, failures of slopes or debris flows. Landslides are an outcome of the change in the stability of slopes caused by groundwater pressure, loss of vegetative cover, erosion, earthquakes, and volcanoes.
Melting Glaciers: Glaciers, massive bodies of ice, melt due to the atmospheric heat. Melting of glaciers is a natural phenomenon. Recent years have witnessed a rise in the rate at which glaciers are melting. This is primarily due to global warming.
Noise Pollution: The noise created by humans and machines that disrupts the balance of the human and animal life is termed as noise pollution. Automobiles, some industrial activities as well as aircraft and rail noise cause noise pollution. It can hamper the physical and psychological well-being of human beings.
Nuclear Energy: The energy that is generated by the nuclear reactions between atomic nuclei under a controlled environment is termed as nuclear energy. Nuclear fission reactions are the most commonly used methods of energy generation. You might like to know about the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power.
Ocean Dumping: The waste that is afloat in water bodies, forms marine debris or marine litter. The wastes that are dumped into oceans accumulate at the center of gyres or on the coasts. Plastic, electronic waste and other such non-biodegradable waste products are often dumped into the oceans. But this human activity is proving dangerous to the lives of aquatic plants and animals.
Oil Spills: The release of crude oil and petroleum products into the water bodies is referred to as an oil spill. Accidental spillage of oil of ocean-going tankers, human activities such as release of waste products into the water bodies as also geological seeps on the sea floor are some of the major causes of oil spills.
Overpopulation: When the number of organisms exceeds the carrying capacity of their habitat, the phenomenon is referred to as overpopulation. An excessive increase in the world's population leads to an excessive consumption of resources, which can result in an imbalance in the availability of natural resources. You might like to know about the causes of overpopulation.
Ozone Depletion: The ozone layer is that part of the Earth's atmosphere, which serves as a protective layer, guarding the Earth from the harmful radiation of the Sun. Chlorofluorocarbons and bromofluorocarbon compounds contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer, causing a hole in it.
Recycling: The process of collecting unused material that is considered as waste and reprocessing it in order to bring it into use, is known as recycling. Waste products are collected, sorted, processed and cleaned so that they can be recycled for manufacturing new products.
Soil Conservation: Soil is one of the most important natural resources. The idea of soil conservation refers to the implementation of strategies to prevent soil erosion. You may like to go through the 10 best ways to conserve soil.
Tornadoes: Tornadoes are destructive forms of storms. They occur mainly due to the meeting of warm ground level air with the cool dry air and due to various other reasons. Most of the tornadoes occur in the month of May.
Tsunamis: A rapid displacement of a water mass that gives rise to a series of waves is termed as a tsunami. Volcanoes, earthquakes, underwater explosions, nuclear testing in oceans, and meteorite impacts can cause tsunamis.
Water Pollution: The contamination of water that makes it unfit for usage is known as water pollution. It is caused by the introduction of harmful chemical substances as also the industrial and human waste into water bodies. It has a deep negative impact on the plant and animal life in the aquatic environment.
Wildfires: Commonly known as forest fires, wildfires refer to uncontrolled fires that occur in the wilds. Lightening, volcanoes, coal fires, heat waves, and climatic changes are the common causes of wildfires.
Wildlife Conservation: Wildlife is an integral part of our natural wealth. The measures for the preservation of animal life and their protection from extinction are classified as wildlife conservation measures.
This was an overview of the different ecology issues that we need to be concerned about. Ecology issues relate to all the living organisms and the environment. Our environment plays a vital role in our living; and so should we, in the maintenance of a healthy environment.